You can understand that a cat’s gum swollen by its behavior during meals. Characteristic signs are an increase in the time that the animal spends on chewing food, and a partial rejection of dry food (if it is present in the diet). Unfortunately, not many masters can boast that they regularly and freely examine the mouth of their pet. Therefore, many veterinarians recommend accustoming cats to this procedure since childhood, especially for elite breeds suffering from diseases of the teeth and gums even at an early age.
A Detailed Description of Possible Causes
If the gum swells in cat near one tooth, then the problem may lie in the root, which can become inflamed due to neoplasms. You can only see the problem on x-rays. There are also a number of diseases that occur in cats of all ages throughout life. Let’s take a closer look at the most common ones:
- Trauma. A cut from a bone fragment from meat or fish can lead to redness of the mucous membrane in the mouth. If the cat has gum swelling, then there is a risk of developing inflammation, which is also characterized by the appearance of pus and an unpleasant smell from the mouth. Some pets injure the mucous membranes of the mouth while gnawing twigs from trees or plastic toys. Small scratches tighten on their own, causing discomfort to the animal for several days. It is recommended to treat deep cuts with cotton wool soaked in an antiseptic solution, 2-3 times a day. For the healing period, exclude solid food from the diet, replacing it with dairy products or vegetable purees.
- Foreign object. In the most scenarios, a cat’s gum can swell if something gets into it. Usually small bones from fish or meat get stuck in the gums, less often wood chips or plastic fragments (during the cracking of toys). The splinter prevents the animal not only during meals, but also at rest. You can suspect something was wrong due to increased salivation and the rejection of solid foods. Also, the pet’s activity decreases, and when you touch the jaw, pain is present. A close determination of the oral cavity can reveal redness and swelling of the affected gum. The putrid smell of their mouth and the presence of pus when pressed on the affected part of the mucosa indicate the development of the inflammatory process. You can remove a foreign body by yourself only in cases where there is no inflammation. This can be done with tweezers, firmly grabbing the tip of the splinter and pulling it sharply. You need to make sure that there are no foreign body residues left in the wound, as they can fester. If there is swelling, pus and redness, then it is better to take the animal to a surgeon who will make the extraction procedure painless.
- Abscess. It is often possible to detect the appearance of an abscess in the mouth of an animal only when there are problems with food intake (refusal to dry food, long chewing of food, etc.) or visible defects (the gum, cheek, eyes, nose swell). The cause of the appearance of an abscess can be a gum injury, a foreign body falling into it, remaining roots after breaking off the teeth. An abscess is characterized by an acute course with large swelling, an abundance of pus and severe pain. In this case, an abscess on the gum can provoke swelling of the entire muzzle of the animal or one cheek, nose, and eye area. In each case, the solution to the problem may differ, as much will depend on the factors that triggered the appearance of the abscess. In difficult cases, an abscess is opened and cleaned to remove pus and lymph fluid. If necessary, do drainage for the outflow of pus in the future. The pet’s master is told and shown how to care for the wound (antiseptic treatments, laying in the cavity of ointments, etc.). Healing is long, with an abundance of discomfort for the animal. Therefore, nutrition (liquid food) and proper wound care will be of great importance.
- Gingivitis. An inflammatory disease that occurs in cats primarily after 10 years of age. But, there are breeds that have an innate predisposition to this pathology, so they can manifest it from the first years of life. Care must be taken if the cat has gum swelling, redness or an unpleasant smell from the mouth. These signs in breeds such as the Sphinxes, Maine Coons, Exotics or Persians may be the first sign of the development of gingivitis. It can provoke the appearance of malnutrition, congenital features of the jaw, tartar or deep caries. In breeds with a flattened muzzle, it is recommended that from childhood a regular check-up of the mouth and brushing of teeth be carried out, since they have an innate predisposition to gingivitis. Treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms. Sometimes it is possible to do with the use of anti-inflammatory ointments, in some cases it is necessary to remove all the teeth.
If the cat has gum swelling near the tooth, it is recommended to show the animal to the dentist, as there is a risk of tooth decay.