Usually, a cat scratches its face no more than several times a day, leaving no marks after that. If crusts, wounds, bald spots appear, then you should inspect the pet closely, as there is a risk that the process takes on a pathological character.
First of all, owners should be fear of parasites and insects, which can provoke a terrible itching, because of which animals literally tear themselves to meat.
Overview of Possible Causes
If the cat scratches the face to hard, but there are no other symptoms, then the variant with flea dermatitis should be excluded. Speaking about allergies, fungal and bacterial lesions, itching usually acts as a complication of the main symptoms (spots, redness, peeling, oozing, rashes and abscesses).
In any case, the following possible reasons for the appearance of this unpleasant symptom must be borne in mind:
- Stress.First, the owner should to exclude this option, since severe stress can provoke the appearance of psychogenic licking and itching. Therefore, if a cat scratching face until it bleeds during a recent move, change of owners, childbirth or surgery, then there is a possibility that the reason lies in psychology. The owner can try to solve the problem by giving antihistamines for a short period of time. In the majority of cases, healing (if the reason is really psychological) occurs within a few days.
- Insect bites. Most often, cats that have free access to the street are affected. During the season of insect activity, the pet may be bitten by mosquitoes, gadflies, flies, ants and wasps. And only the last one triggers severe swelling and redness. In other cases, bites in the muzzle are accompanied by severe itching, due to which the animal scratches itself to the point of sores. There is no such solution to the issue, except how to restrict access to the street during the season of insect activity. Itching and redness after being bitten will almost always heal within a few hours.
- Flea dermatitis. If the cat scratching face until it bleeds, and there are black grains in its fur, then there is a high probability of the presence of fleas. You can pick them up even without going outside (anyone living in the house can bring insects on the soles of shoes or clothes). In addition to itching, bald patches with reddening of the skin inside will appear in different parts of the body. The main thing is to prevent the complication of the process with a bacterial infection, since purulent wounds will still appear in addition to all troubles.
- Acne. It is a huge problem for hairless breeds.In most situations, acne is localized on the chin, brow ridges, ears and forehead. Less commonly on the abdomen, base of the tail and limbs. Therefore, if a sphinx scratches his face until it bleeds, then in the first place the likelihood of acne is excluded. They can be superficial (the inflammatory process is weak) or deep (abscesses appear). A distinctive feature is itching, due to which the animal scratches itself to the wounds. Therefore, acne is very often complicated by a bacterial infection. At the initial stage, in the presence of small lesions, antiseptic treatments with salicylic acid will suffice.
- Allergic reaction. The most common reason if a cat scratching its face until it bleeds. It can be provoked by parasite bites (fleas, ticks), improper diet (most often), contact with chemicals. Very often it proceeds chronically throughout life with periodic exacerbations according to the season or after contact with a potential allergen. Treatment is individual, more symptomatic. But, first, it is recommended to carry out treatment against fleas and ticks. Then they are already considering the option of changing the food. In ornamental breeds, they can immediately offer a transition to hypoallergenic food. Everything else is very difficult to treat, because the allergen can be present in dust, mold, wool (carpets, clothes), which cannot be ruled out. These animals require lifelong supportive therapy. Their main treatment is aimed at eliminating symptoms during an exacerbation.
To determine the pathogen from the lesions, scrapings are taken to the blood and parsed for cytology. To solve the problem, you need to find and eliminate the provoking cause (severe stress, hormonal imbalance, postoperative period, allergies).